Publication date1941Media typePrintThe Mask of Sanity: An Attempt to Clarify Some Issues About the So-Called Psychopathic Personality is a book written by American, first published in 1941, describing Cleckley's clinical interviews with patients in a locked institution. The text is considered to be a seminal work and the most influential clinical description of in the twentieth century. The basic elements of psychopathy outlined by Cleckley are still relevant today.The title refers to the normal ' that conceals the of the psychopathic person in Cleckley's conceptualization.Cleckley describes the psychopathic person as outwardly a perfect mimic of a normally functioning person, able to mask or disguise the fundamental lack of internal personality structure, an internal chaos that results in repeatedly purposeful destructive behavior, often more self-destructive than destructive to others.
Despite the seemingly sincere, intelligent, even charming external presentation, internally the psychopathic person does not have the ability to experience genuine emotions. Cleckley questions whether this mask of sanity is voluntarily assumed to intentionally hide the lack of internal structure, but concludes it hides a serious, but yet imprecisely unidentified, semantic neuropsychiatric defect. Six editions of the book were produced in total, the final shortly after his death. An expanded fifth edition of the book had been published in 1976 and was re-released by his heirs in 1988 for non-profit educational use. Main article:In the 1800s, first used the French term manie sans delire ('mania without delirium') to designate those individuals engaging in deviant behavior but exhibiting no signs of a such as. Although the meaning of the term has changed through numerous writings on the subject over time, the writing of Cleckley and his use of the label 'psychopath' in The Mask of Sanity brought the term into popular usage.
Editions The first edition was published in 1941, with the subtitle then being 'An attempt to re-interpret' rather than as later 'to clarify'. Cleckley says in the preface that the book 'grew out of an old conviction which increased during several years while I sat at staff meetings in a large hospital'. He added that after commencing full-time teaching duties he found similar patients to be as prevalent in a general hospital, outpatient clinic and the community. In later editions he explains that the basic concepts presented in 1941 were based primarily on 'adult male psychopaths hospitalized in a closed institution' for several years.
Cleckley had worked for a number of years at a hospital, before taking up full-time teaching responsibilities at the University of Georgia School of Medicine.The second edition published in 1950, Cleckley has described as a 'new and much larger book', based on more diverse clinical observations, feedback and literature reviews. The third edition in 1955 he describes as having fewer changes and additions, but important clarifications to key concepts such as the hypothesis of a core semantic deficit. A fourth edition was published in 1964.A fifth edition was published in 1976 ( ) and is generally considered to be the definitive culmination of Cleckley's work.
The preface does not specify the changes made. Unlike the first edition it states: 'Dr., my medical associate of many years, has played a major part in the development and the revision of this work.' Cleckley also states that it could not have been written without the assistance and contributions of Thigpen's wife and his own (first), both called Louise. A sixth edition was published shortly after Cleckley's death in 1984, but is described by others as having minimal substantive changes. Several further years after Cleckley's death, another fifth edition ( ) was released for non-profit educational use by Emily S.
Cleckley, his second wife, naming her as well as Hervey M. Cleckley and copyrighted 1988 to her rather than as for all prior initial releases (which have been repeat published in various different years). Description The Mask of Sanity, fifth edition, presents clinical theories as well as case studies, written in the form of dramatic, novelistic descriptions of 13 individuals, an amalgamation of those he had observed.Initial outline The Mask of Sanity begins in Section One, 'An Outline of the Problem', by considering the concept of, which Cleckley describes as. The first words of the book are a possibly untrue anecdote ending with the line, capitalized and centered in large font, 'WHO'S LOONEY NOW?' Cleckley suggests that everyone 'behaves at times with something short of complete rationality and good judgment'. He notes that many types of people hold beliefs that he and much of society would consider irrational, such as, praising of unintelligible or immoral works (e.g.
Acclaim for the novel containing only 'erudite gibberish' or for the writing of on ), and religious faith. He argues, however, that these are personal freedoms and such groups are usually capable of leading useful lives in harmony with others.
This he says distinguishes it from once fully developed and from psychopathy. Classification schemes Cleckley also addresses the confusing traditions of classification in the area of psychopathy, a term he admits is itself confusing and not being used in line with its meaning ('mental sickness'), though adopts it as the most familiar and apparently durable. He considers the terms sociopathic personality and antisocial personality, as adopted by the; the relationship to the overall category of; and the earlier widespread concept of 'constitutional psychopathic inferiority', disputing its hereditary assumptions.
He states that the main purpose of the book is to bring a few cases before other psychiatrists, and also to raise the profile among the public, to enable better management of psychopaths. He criticizes the ' of ', and refers with regret to the lack of prominence of psychopathy in psychiatric textbooks.Prevalence Cleckley argues under a subsection titled 'Not as single spies but in battalions' (a phrase appearing in ), that although reliable statistics are hard to come by, there are various reasons to suspect both psychiatric and prison admission rates are an underestimate, and the of the condition is in his opinion 'exceedingly high'.
He does present some statistics from a survey whereby he and nine other psychiatrists diagnosed 1/8th of patients as having psychopathic personality without any other mental disorder that might explain the condition, and considers that quite a few others classified as alcoholic or drug addicted would actually have qualified too. Their survey is further detailed in the book's appendix, where Cleckley clarifies it took place between 1937 and 1939 at a federal hospital, located on the seaboard, for the care of ex-service men, mainly from. He critiques the 'benign policy' of the VA of not diagnosing more psychopathic personality due to giving the benefit of the doubt to issues such as, or from injuries.
He concludes they have 'records of the utmost folly and misery and idleness over many years' and if considering the number in every community who are protected by relatives, 'the of this disorder is seen to be appalling.' Method Finally, Cleckley asserts that the account provided in his book will accord with the, as pointed out by in, which he loosely summarizes as: to record observed facts; group them together by correlation as distinguished from other facts; to try to summarize or explain in a way that indicates the significance. He also says his method takes inspiration from that used in an earlier work, The Psychology of Insanity by English physician (first edition published in 1912 and now open access ).Characteristics In Section Two, 'The Material', Cleckley presents a typical 'full' psychopath's behavior in a series of 15 (originally nine in the first edition, and all male).
For example, the psychopath can typically tell vivid, lifelike, plausible stories that are completely fraudulent, without evincing any element of delusion. When confronted with a lie, the psychopath is unflappable and can often effortlessly pass it off as a joke. In another typical case history, the psychopath is hospitalized for psychiatric treatment but because of his constant trouble-making, leaving wards in an uproar, the hospital is finally forced to turn him over to the police.
Eventually, the police become so sick of his repeated antics that they try to hospitalize him again.Also included are six vignettes of 'Incomplete manifestations or suggestions of the disorder' in non-patients, such as 'The businessman', 'The gentleman' or 'The physician'.Differentiation In Section Three, 'Cataloging the material', Cleckley continues the conceptual outline started in Section One, now termed 'Orientation'. He criticises the tenets of (now known as ), arguing that such things as intelligence, morality and emotions are not separate parts in the brain but separate concepts we apply. He believes psychopaths would have been included in the 19th century concepts of 'mania without insanity' by and Prichard's, but rejects their faculty basis. He notes the confusingly broad literal meaning and practical usage of the terms psychopathic personality or personality disorder, giving the example of the most authoritative textbook of the second quarter of the century, Psychopathic Personalities, by German psychiatrist.He rails against the and gives as an example the novelist for suggesting a socially necessary role for psychopathy in modern times, calling the idea 'perverse and degenerate'. He also criticizes -inspired ideas about antisocial acts being caused by unconscious guilt. He also disagrees with theories of neurotic, emotional or paranoid problems in subtypes of psychopathy, as in his concept there is always a relative or complete lack of this.
He says the new DSM 'personality disorder, antisocial type' offers an accurate term equivalent to psychopathy which he thinks will also continue as a term for a long time. Psychosis Cleckley then considers how is different from psychopathy, having a defect in theoretical reasoning. He notes that disorders may appear more similar, and might be more accurately called 'masked schizophrenia', which he notes can sometimes be difficult to differentiate from psychopathy. He also notes other 'disguises' of severe personality disorder, such as 'cryptic depression' or 'pseudoneurotic schizophrenia' or 'pseudopsychopathic schizophrenia'. He finds the diagnosis of 'psychosis with psychopathic personality' unnecessarily confusing. He declares, 'There is little point in devoting space to detailed accounts of or personalities.'
In the first edition Cleckley described his psychopathic patients as 'frankly and unquestionably psychotic', but modified this in later editions. In the fifth edition he describes long ago changing his opinion and now agreeing with the psychiatrist that this would stretch the definition of psychosis too far. However at various other points it is still suggested that, despite 'traditional' classification, the extent of the inner abnormality and associated dysfunction in psychopathy is such that it might be considered a psychosis in many respects. Criminality Cleckley draws important distinctions between the psychopath and non-psychopathic criminal. He states that the psychopath very seldom takes much advantage of any gain, has an obscure or inconsistent purpose, usually puts himself unnecessarily in a shameful position as much as causing trouble for others; and usually does not commit the most serious or violent crimes, but usually does end up harming himself.
However, despite the general picture of weak-willed and inconsistent antisocial behavior, he also states, at least in later editions, that some may develop drives towards the most serious or sadistic crimes. He suggests this is a somewhat separate additional pathology but does not explain why or how.Cleckely considers that the concept of has much in common with his concept of psychopathy, and argues that it could be considered a mild version if it continues for a long time and is generalized. He notes that many respectable mature productive citizens can look back on short periods of unprovoked social misconduct, including such things as property damage, rebellion,. On the other hand, he notes prolonged but prescribed behavioral disorder in the case of a woman who remained for some time 'irrationally promiscuous and ', but who had plausible psychological reasons for her behavior and was otherwise functional in her work and life.
He also notes he no longer considers that should be classed as sexual psychopathy, on the grounds that many homosexuals seem to be able to live productive lives in society. He considers that sexual are not particularly consistent with psychopaths, as the latter tend to have weak drives. However, paradoxically, he then states that psychopathy can be associated with particular drives and often be responsible for the most serious.Other conditions He distinguishes psychopaths from non-psychopathic, who by contrast have a purpose for drinking such as to avoid reality, and may want and try to change, whereas the psychopath appears to drink simply to behave outrageously and get into trouble. He also separates (though accepts there may sometimes be overlap) and ' (who unlike the psychopath will test poorly on theoretical intelligence tests as well as in behavior in life). The psychopath does not suffer from any obvious mental disorder but in the end seems to deliberately court failure and disaster for no obvious reason and despite intelligence, in what Cleckley calls a social and spiritual suicide.Cleckley then considers whether psychopathy may be erratic. In surveying some noted literary works embodying what he describes as 'malignantly perverse attitudes', such as by, and (some associated with the ), he suggests that it might be a form of psychopathy, and might appeal to similarly disordered people or to 'new cults of intellectual defeatists and deviates' such as certain groups. However he concludes that such artworks and sexual deviations are more likely due to disorder with and life perversion, whereas the 'true psychopath' would not labor to produce art extolling pathologic or perverse attitudes; on the contrary, they would tend to superficially proclaim belief in a normal, moral life.
However, Cleckley then suggests that initial potential for greatness and emotional depth may cause problems, such as being more affected by problems in life, that then leads into psychopathy.Fiction and ancient history Cleckley then surveys numerous characters in fictional works that he considers to be portrayals of psychopathy. He concludes by addressing figures in history, excluding and others from his definition but highlighting, a and politician in. He describes a fascination with him growing out an old conviction in the 'paradoxical' nature of his life, since learning of it in high school. He concludes that Alcibiades 'had the gift of every talent except that of using them consistently to achieve any sensible aim or in behalf of any discernible cause' and he 'may have been a spectacular example of.the psychopath', that 'still inexplicable pattern of human life'. Retrieved 2007-12-14. ^ Meloy, J.
Scarpoint The Mask Of Sanity Rar Free
The Psychopathic Mind: Origins, Dynamics, and Treatment. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.
P. 9. Cleckley, p. 238.
^ By Andrew R. ProQuest, 2008. Chapter 4: Hervey Cleckley's The Mask of Sanity., 1988, 'scanned facsimile produced for non-profit educational use'. Phrase Finder is copyright Gary Martin, 1996-2015. All rights reserved. Internet Archive. The Mask of Sanity, Fifth edition, pp 225 - 243.
Mask of Sanity, fifth edition, pg 367-371, 423. ^ Hare, Robert D.; Neumann, Craig S. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 4: 217–46.
The Mask of Sanity, fifth edition, pgs 339,382, 387. Cleckley, pp. 249–252. The Mask of Sanity, 5th Edition, 316-336. Cleckley, pp.338-339 (5th ed.). Meloy, p.
10. The Mask of Sanity, fifth edition, pages 376-387. The Mask of Sanity, 5th Edition, pp 403-415. Mask of Sanity, Fifth edition, Pg 433-446.
The Mask Of Sanity Pdf
Cameron, Deborah (1987). The Lust to Kill. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press. Pp. 87–94. ^ Millon, Theodore; Roger D. Davis (1996).
Disorders of Personality: DSM-IV and Beyond. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Pp. 169, 443. ^ Stephen Strack, John Wiley & Sons, 21 Jan 2005. Chapter 15: Psychopathy as a Personality Construct (Ronald Blackburn).
M. The British Journal of Psychiatry (2007) 191: 357:. Joseph J. Michaels, M.D. Psychosomatic Medicine, Volume XXIV No.
Retrieved 2007-12-15. Perri, Frank S. And Terrance G.
Lichtenwald (2010). 'The Last Frontier: Myths & the Female Psychopathic Killer,' The Forensic Examiner, Summer 2010, pp. 50–67References.
The Mask Of Sanity Free Download
Cleckley, Hervey (1982). The Mask of Sanity.
Revised Edition. Mosby Medical Library. Meloy, J. The Psychopathic Mind: Origins, Dynamics, and Treatment.
Jason Aronson Inc. Millon, Theodore; Roger D. Davis (1996). Disorders of Personality: DSM-IV and Beyond. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.External links. Time Magazine, 1941 (requires subscription) – Cleckley's semantic dementia.